The 25-year-old was due to remain with the League One outfit until the end of the season, but has been recalled early.
It's understood the Seasiders only notified MK and Robson of their intentions to bring him back this morning.
Robson has made 23 appearances in all competitions for Liam Manning's side this term, scoring once, and has attracted plenty of plaudits.
But amid a growing crisis in Blackpool's central midfield, Neil Critchley has opted to recall Robson early from his spell at Stadium:MK.
"Blackpool Football Club can confirm that Ethan Robson has been recalled from his loan spell at MK Dons, " the club said in a brief statement.
"The midfielder, who linked up with MK in July, returns to Bloomfield Road having made 23 appearances for the Sky Bet League One side this season."
The news will come as a major blow for MK, who are flying high in fifth place in the League One table.
"Ethan Robson has today returned to parent club Blackpool," the club said in their own statement.
"MK Dons were informed this morning of Blackpool's decision to activate the recall clause in the midfielder’s loan deal."
MK's sporting director Liam Sweeting, meanwhile, added: “We are very much disappointed to lose Ethan but, ultimately, we have to respect the decision of his parent club, Blackpool.
“Ethan contributed to a strong first half of the season and he leaves with our gratitude and best wishes for the remainder of the season.
“As with all players, we have plans in place should they depart the football club.
"Work is already well underway to bolster our squad during the remaining weeks of the transfer window.”
Robson made 36 appearances for the Seasiders last season after signing on a free transfer, but was allowed to depart this season after falling down the pecking order at Bloomfield Road.
Blackpool were already low on options in central midfield before Cardiff City opted to recall Ryan Wintle from his season-long loan deal earlier this month.
Matty Virtue and Grant Ward are long-term absentees, while Kevin Stewart has only just returned from his own injury and will need some time to get up to speed.
Elsewhere, Kenny Dougall is the only fit and available player who specialises as a central midfielder, although Callum Connolly and Reece James can also fill in there.
The Seasiders continue to be linked with central midfielders in the January transfer window, including Oxford United's Cameron Brannagan, Ebou Adams, of Forest Green Rovers, and Swansea City's Jay Fulton.
But as yet Blackpool are yet to strengthen in that area of the pitch.
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