The Coasters have also confirmed the departure of Nick Chadwick, the club's former assistant manager who presided over Saturday's win over Bradford Park Avenue the day after Jim Bentley's exit.
Ipswich-born Rowe, 38, took charge of National League club Chesterfield in November 2021, lifting the Spireites from second-bottom into the play-offs.
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He left by mutual consent just over a month ago, having been suspended amid allegations of misconduct.
He had previously spent 12 months at the helm of Fylde's National League North rivals Gloucester City, having first moved into management as assistant boss of Aldershot Town.
A former forward, Rowe was widely travelled in non-league, with notable stints at Sudbury, Histon and Canvey Island.
Rowe told the club website: "I’m delighted to be here. I’m looking forward to getting started and getting integrated within the community, and me and my family moving to the area to help with that.“
All focus is on the short-term objective of returning to the Vanarama National League, while also implementing the foundations for the long-term success.
“I look forward to seeing the travelling support at Kidderminster on Saturday; if not then, I will look forward to introducing myself at the Telford United fixture next Tuesday night.”
Fylde chairman David Haythornthwaite said: “James has been on our radar for some time as his results at both Gloucester and Chesterfield were outstanding.
“Over the last four days, we have had several meetings with James. We have all been struck by James’ openness, burning ambition and desire to win.
“We have done our due diligence on James, and while it is clear he is no shrinking violet we are confident that James will bring a winning mentality to the club, which we all want."
The owner added that Rowe was recommended by his namesake Danny Rowe, the record-breaking former Fylde striker now at Chesterfield.
Regarding Chadwick, who joined the club 19 months ago from Wigan Athletic, Haythornthaite added: "James felt he needed a clean sheet of paper and we respected this decision.
"I want to put on record my sincere thanks to Nick who, like Jim Bentley, is a true gentleman and someone we wish every success to in the future.”