Robson made 63 appearances for the Seasiders between 1965 and 1968, scoring 13 times.
In April 1966, he became the first Blackpool substitute to score a goal during a 2-1 defeat to Manchester United.
He is held in legendary status at Burnley, where the inside forward won the First Division with the Clarets in 1960.
Robson was also part of the side that finished runners up to Tottenham Hotspur in the 1962 FA Cup, where he scored the 100th goal in the final of the competition.
He scored 100 goals in 242 appearances during his time at Turf Moor.
Robson, who was born in County Durham in 1939, was diagnosed with dementia in 2015.
Of the Burnley team who won the 1959/60 title, seven have been diagnosed with the illness.
“My dad, my mate, my hero. Jimmy,” his daughter Dany wrote on social media.
“Cheeky, funny, practical joker, brilliant company, a top story teller - an absolute treasure.
“23 Jan 1939-14 Dec 2021.”
Paying tribute to Robson, Burnley FC said in a statement: "We're saddened to hear of the passing of Jimmy Robson this morning.
"The Clarets legend won the First Division with Burnley in 1960 and made 242 appearances.
"The thoughts of everyone at Turf Moor are with Jimmy's family and friends."
Blackpool FC said: "We're saddened to learn of the passing of former forward Jimmy Robson at the age of 82.
"Our sincere condolences go out to his family."
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